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Source: Arthur C Clarke, Profiles of the Future, Page: 187

"Many years ago, the Russians put on the market a neat little ?electric sleep apparatus? about the size of a shoe box and weighing only five pounds. Through electrodes resting on the eyelids, and the nape, low-frequency pulses are applied to the cerebral cortex, and the subject promptly lapses into a profound slumber."

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In a time-frame spanning from the 1970s to late 1990s, research programs on Electrical Neurostimulators (ENS) was conducted at the All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute for Medical Instrument Engineering.

Under close collaboration with the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and the Ministry of Health of Russia, several mono-functional devices were built, each having a specific, unique purpose.

The overriding theme of all was to over stimulate the neurons in a given area of the brain. In so doing the devices brought different latent abilities to the fore.

Some such devices were developed which it was hoped would replace anaesthesia in surgical patients, by basically putting the brain into sleep mode, and keeping it there until the stimulation was removed.

Four such devices were developed over the time-frame, including Delta-101, Delta-102, Delta-301, and Sinaps-1. After the fall of the USSR, funding all but dried up, and similar experiments began to be conducted in the US, with a small number of patents following suite.


Research still continues into neurostimulators for anaesthesia and a wide variety of other health applications. Epilepsy regulation is another avenue. They don?t yet have any application for VR, but continued research is a good thing above and beyond the hoped health benefits.

Unlike current designs for brain-controlled devices, neurostimulators deliver feedback, altering the electrical currents in the brain. Combined with current BMI, they offer what is for now just the remote possibility of two way traffic, direct to the central nervous system.

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About the Book 'Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible'
By Arthur C Clarke
Produced By Phoenix

This book was originally produced in 1962, heralding Arthur?s predictions of the future of mankind, from a technological standpoint, across all sectors of industry and life. It was based on his own essays, written during the period 1959 - 1961.

Since it was concerned with ultimate possibilities, and not with achievements to be expected in the near future, even the post 2000 technological acceleration has dented many of the predictions within it. However, the author went over the book in the early 2000s, editing most of the chapters, and explaining where his predictions went wron...
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